· Nutraceuticals are possibly associated with adaptive immune response.

· They place a key role in the pathogenesis of viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.


· Microorganisms that can have beneficial effects

on host if ingested in a certain quantity.

· Biosynthesis of vitamink and fermentation of undigested

dietary fibers.

· Best source for probiotics are Yogurt, Pickles, Sourdough bread.

· Most important Probiotics are Lactobacillus acidophilus,

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.


· Non-digestible micronutrients.

· Selectively stimulate the growth and activity of one or limited

number of bacterial species.

· Some viral strains like influenza and rhinovirus considered as

prevention for COVID-19.

· Best sources for Prebiotics are Apple, Bananas, Berries.


· Neutrophils and monocytes are useful to the stabilization

of cellular microtubules and help in Phagocytosis.

· Helps in defending the foreign organisms.

· It plays a vital role in prevention of COVID-19 by

increasing the immunity.

· Best source for vitamin C are Citrus fruits,

Strawberries, Broccoli.


· It enhances the body’s immune response.

· For the treatment of patients at risk of COVID-19 ,it is recommended to increase the concentrations of

vitamin D between 40-60 mg/ml.

· They are not directly related to calcium metabolism.

· Best sources for Vitamin D are fatty fish like Tuna, Cheese,

Egg yolks.


· It is essential for functioning of many enzymes

and some cellular mediators.

· It prevents the alteration of immune system

and improve resistance to infections.

· It’s synergistic action with hydroxychloroquine,

chloroquine gives antiviral properties.

· Best sources for Zinc are Chicken leg, Lobster,

Dry roasted cashews.


· It is essential dietary factor because it is not synthesized by the human body.

· Vitamin A deficiency affects the B cell function

and decreases the antibody production.

· Reduces the risk of lower respiratory tract infections.

· Best source of Vitamin A are Green leafy vegetables

like Spinach, Papaya, Eggs, Cheese.


· Simplest omega -3 fatty acid is Linolenic acid

must be obtained from diet.

· Both omega 3& 6 regulate the immunity in prevention of COVID-19.

· The amino acids such as DHA & EPA are provided

with these supplements.

· Best source for omega -3 fatty acids are

Salmon fish, Flax seed, Walnuts.


· Hesperidin has pharmacological activities such as

anti-atherogenic, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic actions.

· It is essential for cell defense mechanisms against

influenza virus.

· Hesperidin is responsible for defense mechanisms

in the Fatal lung diseases, Pulmonary fibrosis and some

other severe cases.

· Best source for the hesperidin are Citrus fruits

such as Oranges, Grapes, Lemons.

IRON: · Iron plays an important role in the nutraceuticals by energy production.

· It is needed for hemoglobin formation and reduce the risk of causing anemia.

· It helps to transport the oxygen by binding to the hemoglobin molecules in the Red Blood Cells. · Best source for Iron are Beans, Lentils, Baked potatoes, Cashews, Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach.


· It performs antifungal functions, antioxidant,

anti-inflammatory properties.

· Main obstacle for resveratrol is it’s poor

oral bioavailability.

· It’s intake may have significant effect on

severity of COVID-19.

· It also fights against the Ultraviolet radiation

and Stress in the human body

· Some effects such as Nausea and Vomiting, and Diarrhea are shown if it is taken in excess amounts.

· Best source for the resveratrol are Peanuts, .Blueberries, Dark chocolate.


· It is involved in the coagulation pathway acting

as cofactor for many proteins.

· It is commonly associated to COVID-19 by affecting

the vascular tissue and stiffening the lung tissues.

· This is due to degradation of elastic fibers.

· Best source for the Vitamin K are green leafy vegetables

like Spinach, Broccoli, Lettuce.


· Most abundant dietary polyphenolic flavonoid and

shows several activities such as pro-metabolic and antiviral actions.

· Quercetin reduces the infectivity of human and bovine corona virus.

· It decreases the incidence of upper respiratory

tract infections and acts asa anti-inflammatory agent in COVID-19.

· Best source for the quercetin are Apples, Tomatoes, Blueberries.


· It is glycoprotein belongs to the transferrin family and comprises 692 amino acids.

· It appears to inhibit the attack of viruses on the immune receptors of human body.

· Lactoferrin administered for oral and intranasal use.

· Colostrum is the main and concentrated source for the lactoferrin.

· Best source for the lactoferrin are Chewing gums, fermented milk and milk products.


· It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and also modulates the immune system.

· Improves sleep quality and reduces the vessel permeability.

· Use of sedatives lead to better results for patients of COVID-19.

· Best source of Melatonin are Corn, Asparagus, Walnuts, Peanuts, Barley.


· They are quite large in number and diverse in

nature which oppose the process of oxidation.

· Like tocopherols they lower the susceptibility of LDL,

oxidation and reduce the role of platelets in thrombus formation.

· Best source for Antioxidants are Soyabean oil, Corn oil,

Oat oil, Wheat germ oil.

Prepared by III-B.Pharmacy students: Gurram Mahesh kumar

Mattaparthi Shiva Krishna.

Pydah college of pharmacy affiliated to Andhra University offered courses

B.Pharm ,M.Pharm & Pharma.D