· Nutraceuticals are possibly associated with adaptive immune response.
· They place a key role in the pathogenesis of viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19.
· Microorganisms that can have beneficial effects
on host if ingested in a certain quantity.
· Biosynthesis of vitamink and fermentation of undigested
· Best source for probiotics are Yogurt, Pickles, Sourdough bread.
· Most important Probiotics are Lactobacillus acidophilus,
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.
· Non-digestible micronutrients.
· Selectively stimulate the growth and activity of one or limited
number of bacterial species.
· Some viral strains like influenza and rhinovirus considered as
prevention for COVID-19.
· Best sources for Prebiotics are Apple, Bananas, Berries.
· Neutrophils and monocytes are useful to the stabilization
of cellular microtubules and help in Phagocytosis.
· Helps in defending the foreign organisms.
· It plays a vital role in prevention of COVID-19 by
increasing the immunity.
· Best source for vitamin C are Citrus fruits,
· It enhances the body’s immune response.
· For the treatment of patients at risk of COVID-19 ,it is recommended to increase the concentrations of
vitamin D between 40-60 mg/ml.
· They are not directly related to calcium metabolism.
· Best sources for Vitamin D are fatty fish like Tuna, Cheese,
· It is essential for functioning of many enzymes
and some cellular mediators.
· It prevents the alteration of immune system
and improve resistance to infections.
· It’s synergistic action with hydroxychloroquine,
chloroquine gives antiviral properties.
· Best sources for Zinc are Chicken leg, Lobster,
Dry roasted cashews.
· It is essential dietary factor because it is not synthesized by the human body.
· Vitamin A deficiency affects the B cell function
and decreases the antibody production.
· Reduces the risk of lower respiratory tract infections.
· Best source of Vitamin A are Green leafy vegetables
like Spinach, Papaya, Eggs, Cheese.
OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS:
· Simplest omega -3 fatty acid is Linolenic acid
must be obtained from diet.
· Both omega 3& 6 regulate the immunity in prevention of COVID-19.
· The amino acids such as DHA & EPA are provided
with these supplements.
· Best source for omega -3 fatty acids are
Salmon fish, Flax seed, Walnuts.
· Hesperidin has pharmacological activities such as
anti-atherogenic, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic actions.
· It is essential for cell defense mechanisms against
· Hesperidin is responsible for defense mechanisms
in the Fatal lung diseases, Pulmonary fibrosis and some
other severe cases.
· Best source for the hesperidin are Citrus fruits
such as Oranges, Grapes, Lemons.
IRON: · Iron plays an important role in the nutraceuticals by energy production.
· It is needed for hemoglobin formation and reduce the risk of causing anemia.
· It helps to transport the oxygen by binding to the hemoglobin molecules in the Red Blood Cells. · Best source for Iron are Beans, Lentils, Baked potatoes, Cashews, Dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach.
· It performs antifungal functions, antioxidant,
· Main obstacle for resveratrol is it’s poor
· It’s intake may have significant effect on
severity of COVID-19.
· It also fights against the Ultraviolet radiation
and Stress in the human body
· Some effects such as Nausea and Vomiting, and Diarrhea are shown if it is taken in excess amounts.
· Best source for the resveratrol are Peanuts, .Blueberries, Dark chocolate.
· It is involved in the coagulation pathway acting
as cofactor for many proteins.
· It is commonly associated to COVID-19 by affecting
the vascular tissue and stiffening the lung tissues.
· This is due to degradation of elastic fibers.
· Best source for the Vitamin K are green leafy vegetables
like Spinach, Broccoli, Lettuce.
· Most abundant dietary polyphenolic flavonoid and
shows several activities such as pro-metabolic and antiviral actions.
· Quercetin reduces the infectivity of human and bovine corona virus.
· It decreases the incidence of upper respiratory
tract infections and acts asa anti-inflammatory agent in COVID-19.
· Best source for the quercetin are Apples, Tomatoes, Blueberries.
· It is glycoprotein belongs to the transferrin family and comprises 692 amino acids.
· It appears to inhibit the attack of viruses on the immune receptors of human body.
· Lactoferrin administered for oral and intranasal use.
· Colostrum is the main and concentrated source for the lactoferrin.
· Best source for the lactoferrin are Chewing gums, fermented milk and milk products.
· It has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and also modulates the immune system.
· Improves sleep quality and reduces the vessel permeability.
· Use of sedatives lead to better results for patients of COVID-19.
· Best source of Melatonin are Corn, Asparagus, Walnuts, Peanuts, Barley.
· They are quite large in number and diverse in
nature which oppose the process of oxidation.
· Like tocopherols they lower the susceptibility of LDL,
oxidation and reduce the role of platelets in thrombus formation.
· Best source for Antioxidants are Soyabean oil, Corn oil,
Oat oil, Wheat germ oil.
Prepared by III-B.Pharmacy students: Gurram Mahesh kumar
Mattaparthi Shiva Krishna.
Pydah college of pharmacy affiliated to Andhra University offered courses
B.Pharm ,M.Pharm & Pharma.D